We present a theoretical framework which explains the optimizing behavior of individuals who are exposed to many latent stimuli but prone to experience only the most salient one. We show that individuals with such preferences may find it optimal to engage in seemingly dysfunctional behavior such as self-harm. Our model also explains the behavior of individuals experiencing depression or trapped by multiple competing problems. We present experimental evidence suggesting such preferences explain the behavior of more than two thirds of subjects exposed to single and multiple painful stimuli.
Are Two Bads Better than One? A Model of Sensory Limitations by Lars John Lefgren, Olga Stoddard, John E. Stovall :: SSRNOctober 18, 2018
Numerous studies have examined the health effect of retirement, retirement behavior, and not having assets saved for retirement, however, few have analyzed the mental health effects of running out of money during retirement. This study examines the likelihood of having mental health issues in retirement when an individual runs out of money. This research article utilizes five waves of the Health and Retirement Study, spanning from 2006 through 2014. The result suggests that individuals who are going to run out of money two years from now have an increase in the probability of having mental health issues. However, there is an even further increase in the likelihood of mental health issues when the individual actually has actually run out of money. The larger the drop in asset level (ex. $25,000 down to below $1,000 vs $5,000 down to below $1,000) the large probability of having mental health issues. With the United States currently living longer and choosing to retire earlier there increased the risk of running out of money in retirement. Which leads to an increased risk of having mental health issues throughout retirement.
Rich Man, Poor Man: The Policy Implications of Canadians Living Longer by Kevin S. Milligan, Tammy Schirle :: SSRNSeptember 16, 2018
A longevity gap between rich and poor has persisted over the years in Canada with significant policy implications, according to a new report from the C.D. Howe Institute. In “Rich Man, Poor Man: The Policy Implications of Canadians Living Longer” – the first study of long-term changes in longevity across earnings groups in Canada – authors Kevin Milligan and Tammy Schirle provide new evidence on the incomes and life expectancy of Canadians.
By 2013, the average Medicare beneficiary’s out-of-pocket spending on health care consumed 41 percent of the average Social Security check, according to Kaiser, which also estimated that the figure would rise.
Estimating the Effects of Subsidized School Meals on Child Health: Evidence from the Community Eligibility Provision in Georgia SchoolsMay 29, 2018
For many children in the United States, school meals represent a vital source of reliable and nutritious food. Utilizing variation caused by the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) in Georgia schools, we estimate models of school-level child health measured by the percentage of healthy weight children and average Body Mass Index (BMI) score. CEP eligibility is used as an instrument for CEP participation and the percentage of students enrolled in free and reduced-price school lunches, as well as in the reduced form. We find that CEP participation increases the percentage of healthy weight students in a school and reduces average BMI. We find no statistically significant evidence to support a deleterious effect from either the CEP or free school meals on child health outcomes. Subsample analyses suggest that that the effect of school meals on health varies across grade and location type, with no effect on high schools or rural schools.
This paper studies the effects of day care exposure on behavioral disorders and mental and physical health at various ages during childhood. We draw on a unique set of merged population register data from Sweden over the period 1999-2008. This includes merged information at the individual level from the inpatient and outpatient registers, the population register and the income tax register. The outpatient register contains all ambulatory care contacts including all contacts with physicians and therapists. Visits are recorded by day, and comprehensive diagnoses are recorded for each visit.By exploiting variation in day care exposure by age generated by a major day care policy reform, we estimate cumulative and instantaneous effects on child health at different ages. We find a positive cumulative impact on behavior at primary school ages, in particular for children from low socio-economic status households, and substitution of infections from primary school ages to low ages. All this affects health care utilization and leads to a moderate reduction in health care costs. Results are confirmed by analyses based on a sibling design and on regional and household-specific components of day care fees.
The growth of novel flexible work formats raises a number of questions about their effects upon health and the potential required changes in public policy. However, answering these questions is hampered by lack of suitable data. This is the first paper that draws on comprehensive longitudinal administrative data to examine the impact of self-employment in terms of health. It also considers an objective measure of health – hospital admissions – that is not subject to recall or other biases that may affect previous studies. Our findings, based on a representative sample of over 100,000 individuals followed monthly from 2005 to 2011 in Portugal, indicate that the likelihood of hospital admission of self-employed individuals is about half that of wage workers. This finding holds even when accounting for a potential self-selection of the healthy into self-employment. Similar results are found for mortality rates.